Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation; presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a correct spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect prose, poetry, non-fiction, etc. There may be multiple standard dialects associated with a single language. A nonstandard dialectlike a standard dialect, has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntaxbut is usually not the beneficiary of institutional support.
See Article History Alternative Title: Nevertheless, while dialects of the same language differ, they still possess a common core of features.
Although some linguists include phonological features such as vowels, consonants, and intonation among the dimensions of dialect, the standard practice is to treat such features as aspects of accent.
Accent differences of this kind are extremely important as regional and class indicators in every language. Their role is well recognized in Great Britain, for example, where the prestige accent, called Received Pronunciation, is used as an educated standard and differences in regional accent, both rural and urban, are frequent.
There is far less accent variation in Canada, Australia, and large parts of the United States. Frequently, the label dialect, or dialectal, is attached to substandard speechlanguage usage that deviates from the accepted norm—e. On the other hand, the standard language can also be regarded as one of the dialects of a given language, though one that has attracted special prestige.
In a historical sense, the term dialect is sometimes applied to a language considered as one of a group deriving from a common ancestor. Thus, EnglishSwedishand German are sometimes treated as Germanic dialects. There is often considerable difficulty in deciding whether two linguistic varieties are dialects of the same language or two separate but closely related languages; this is especially true in parts of the world where speech communities have been little studied.
In these cases especially, decisions regarding dialects versus languages must be to some extent arbitrary. Normally, dialects of the same language are considered to be mutually intelligible, while different languages are not. Intelligibility between dialects is, however, almost never absolutely complete.
On the other hand, speakers of closely related languages can still communicate to a certain extent when each uses his own mother tongue. Thus, the criterion of intelligibility is quite relative. In more-developed societies the distinction between dialects and related languages is easier to make because of the existence of standard languages.
Sometimes sociopolitical factors play a role in drawing the distinction between dialect and language. Linguistic varieties that are considered dialects in one set of historical circumstances may be considered languages in another. Before the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the s, Serbo-Croatian was viewed by its speakers as a single language consisting of several dialects, spoken in SerbiaBosnia and Herzegovinaand Croatia; afterward, local communities began to talk of Croatian and Serbian as distinct languages.
Among the synonyms for dialect, the word idiom refers to any kind of dialect, or even language, whereas patois, a term from Frenchdenotes rural or provincial dialects, often with a deprecatory connotation. A similar term is vernacular, which refers to the common, everyday speech of the ordinary people of a region.
An idiolect is the dialect of an individual person at one time.a shprach eez a deealekt mit an armee un flot "A language is a dialect with an army and navy" His point being that the difference between a language and a dialect was ultimately a political distinction and had little to do with linguistics, per se.
This article presents a general framework for approaching dialect, slang, and similar phenomena in literature. The examples discussed come from the period –, but the issues are meant to apply to literature of virtually any era.
The written southern dialect helps the reader to get into character as they read each line. A good example of this is also in Chapter one, when Jem makes fun of Dills name, and Dill replies, s not any funnier yours. Best website about the Southern Accent, a.k.a.
Southern American English (SAE). How to speak with an accent from the South of the United States.
Mp3 recordings of the Southern accents. Review of books, methods and audio courses. Suthurn. Best Suthern Tutorial. In southern literature you also see a different dialect than you see in other writings.
Southern accents are often portrayed through the characters within the stories.
The southern draw makes for a much more realistic story to southerners as well as makes it easier for the reader to relate to. Writing Accents and Dialects. But the use of dialect in writing is tricky, and if you don't use care and sensitivity, it may backfire.
Earl Conrad argues that Mitchell is typical of white Southern writers of her day who employed dialect to reinforce the erroneous belief that blacks are inferior--that their speech is so bad it can’t.