This tutorial assumes that you have installed Apache2. You can do this by opening a terminal and typing sudo apt-get install apache2 Serving static HTML files is limited, and not interactive. Scripting makes web sites dynamic and opens up possibilities like building interactive web sites and sites that can remotely control devices. Scripts execute when they are requested by a browser.
The main difference is that Kermit, since it can make many kinds of connections, must be told which kind to make "ftp open"whereas since FTP makes only one kind, it simply opens the connection the only way it knows how. Note, however, that any error handling in the procedures above is done strictly by the user.
If an error message appears, the user reads it and decides how to respond. Kermit makes the connection in passive mode by default. On multiple-file downloads, Kermit does not prompt you for each file. Kermit has many functional advantages, listed HERE. To make Kermit execute these commands automatically, just put them into a file: Executing this file is just like the interactive procedure but without engagement of your brain for decision making in case of errors.
Note, by the way, that there are simpler ways to accomplish the same task download a single file anonymouslye. If you want to run the script "directly" as you would a shell scriptthis must be the first line in the script.
The Kerbang line specifies the script interpreter to be Kermit rather than the shell. Substitute the appropriate C-Kermit 8.
If the connection is successful, the command attempts to log in as user "anonymous", using your username and hostname in email-address format as the password.
If not, it prints an error message and exits with a status of 1, indicating failure. Here's where methods 1 and 2 above are lacking: If login failed, the script prints "Login failed" and exits with a failure code of 1.
Note that all commands for the FTP server begin with the word "ftp". That's because Kermit also has similar commands to be executed on the local computer, and other similar commands to be executed by a Kermit not FTP server.
If it failed, a message such as "ftp cd drivers: No such file or directory" is printed, indicating the failing command and the FTP server's failure reason, and the script exits with a failure code. If we did not check for failure here, then the later download would fail or worse we might download the wrong file.
We log out and disconnect from the server If you don't include an EXIT command in the script, it won't exit; instead, it will issue C-Kermit's interactive command prompt and wait for you to type a command. The "0" is optional; Kermit's default exit status code is 0.
Let's say our script has been saved in a file called getnewdrivers. How to execute it? There are at least three ways: At the shell prompt, type "kermit getnewdrivers" assuming the script is in the current directory, and "kermit" is C-Kermit 8.
At the shell prompt, type "getnewdrivers" assuming the getnewdrivers script file is stored in a directory that is in your UNIX PATH; if it's not, type the full pathname.
In cases 1 and 2, the Kerbang line is not needed. Method 3 requires the getnewdrivers file to be in your PATH and that the Kerbang line of the script indicates the pathname of the C-Kermit 8. But it's a notoriously bad idea to put passwords in scripts or any other files if this is news to you, please take it on faith.
So how can the script log in as a real user without knowing the password in advance? There are lots of ways. The first is simply to have the script prompt for the password when it runs: Alternatively, you can have Kermit prompt you for the password in advance.
This might be appropriate when it's a long-running script and the FTP step doesn't happen until much later: Normally, everything in Kermit that starts with a backslash indicates some kind of replacement -- a variable, a function call, the numeric representation of a character, etc.
Now suppose you want your script to run unattended when nobody is there to type in the password. This is a classic problem. One solution is to start the script early, type the password, and then have the script wait until the the desired time to do its work, using Kermit's SLEEP command, e.
Well, that's a tough one, and it's one of the reasons for the appearance of secure FTP servers and Kermit's features for taking advantage of them. But that's another story, covered elsewhere:Passing arguments to the bash script #!/bin/bash # use predefined variables to access passed arguments articles will feature various GNU/Linux configuration tutorials and FLOSS technologies used in combination with GNU/Linux operating system.
When writing your articles you will be expected to be able to keep up with a technological. Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
First released in , it has been distributed widely as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and Apple's macOS (formerly OS X).A version is also available for Windows It is also the default user shell in Solaris If some_program were a bash shell script, we could read each item on the command line because the positional parameters contain the following: $0 would contain "some_program" $1 would contain "word1".
Writing a Simple Bash Script If you've ever wanted to learn how to write a shell script but didn't know where to start, this is your lucky day.
If this is your first time writing a script, don't worry — shell scripting is not that complicated.
This article will help you to pass command line arguments in a shell script. To pass a command line argument we can simply write them after script name separated with space. All command line parameters can be access by their position number using $. list terminators. A list is a sequence of sublists separated by semicolons ; or ampersands & and optionally terminated by a semicolon or ampersand..
If the separator or terminator is an ampersand, the previous sublist is run in the background.