From the point of view of managers various issues relating to OB are discussed as follows: One of the most common and important challenges currently facing organisations is dealing with people who are different. This challenge is termed as work force diversity.
The objectives of OD are: In other words, these programs[ which? But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the organization encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them strengthening inter-personal trust, cooperation, and communication for the successful achievement of organizational goals encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged[ by whom?
This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness.
Change agent[ edit ] A change agent in the sense used here is not a technical expert skilled in such functional areas as accounting, production, or finance.
The change agent is a behavioral scientist who knows how to get people in an organization involved in solving their own problems. A change agent's main strength is a comprehensive knowledge of human behavior, supported by a number of intervention techniques to be discussed later. The change agent can be either external or internal to the organization.
An internal change agent is usually a staff person who has expertise in the behavioral sciences and in the intervention technology of OD. Beckhard reports several cases in which line people have been trained in OD and have returned to their organizations to engage in successful change-assignments. In their three-year study of UK healthcare organizations, the researchers identified three different mechanisms through which knowledge leaders actively "transposed", "appropriated" or "contended" change concepts, effectively translating and embedding these in organizational practice.
In such a case, the "contractual relationship" is an in-house agreement that should probably be explicit with respect to all of the conditions involved except the fee. Sponsoring organization[ edit ] The initiative for OD programs often comes from an organization that has a problem or anticipates facing a problem.
This means that top management or someone authorized by top management is aware that a problem exists and has decided to seek help in solving it.
There is a direct analogy here to the practice of psychotherapy: The client or patient must actively seek help in finding a solution to his problems.
This indicates a willingness on the part of the client organization to accept help and assures the organization that management is actively concerned. The basic method used is known as action research. This approach, which is described in detail later, consists of a preliminary diagnosis, collecting data, feedback of the data to the client, data exploration by the client group, action planning based on the data, and taking action.
Parts of systems — for example, individuals, cliques, structures, norms, values, and products — are not considered in isolation; the principle of interdependency — that change in one part of a system affects the other parts — is fully recognized.
Thus OD interventions focus on the total cultures and cultural processes of organizations. The focus is also on groups, since the relevant behavior of individuals in organizations and groups is generally a product of the influences of groups rather than of personalities.
This includes improved interpersonal and group processes, more effective communication, and enhanced ability to cope with organizational problems of all kinds. It also involves more effective decision processes, more appropriate leadership stylesimproved skill in dealing with destructive conflict, as well as developing improved levels of trust and cooperation among organizational members.
These objectives stem from a value system based on an optimistic view of the nature of man — that man in a supportive environment is capable of achieving higher levels of development and accomplishment.
Essential to organization development and effectiveness is the scientific method — inquiry, a rigorous search for causes, experimental testing of hypotheses, and review of results. Self-managing work groups allows the members of a work team to manage, control, and monitor all facets of their work, from recruiting, hiring, and new employees to deciding when to take rest breaks.
An early analysis of the first-self-managing work groups yielded the following behavioral characteristics Hackman, Employees assume personal responsibility and accountability for outcomes of their work.
Employees monitor their own performance and seek feedback on how well they are accomplishing their goals. Employees manage their performance and take corrective action when necessary to improve their and the performance of other group members.
Employees seek guidance, assistance, and resources from the organization when they do not have what they need to do the job.
Employees help members of their work group and employees in other groups to improve job performance and raise productivity for the organization as a whole. Organizational self-renewal[ edit ] The ultimate aim of OD practitioners is to "work themselves out of a job" by leaving the client organization with a set of tools, behaviors, attitudes, and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps toward its own renewal and development.Figure 1 suggests that organizational behavior is shaped by four forces - the organization’s environment and the choice its leaders make about strategy, the organization’s design, the people selected and promoted, and the behavior of leaders and their top team.
Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself".
Chapter 3: Organizational Issues, Goals and Strategies The development of an organizational strategy for work in economic, social and cultural rights can be thought of as the result of finding a "fit" among: the external issues the organization or program has decided to address, as well as any potential challenges or limitations it may.
However, the effectiveness of any organization is predicated upon its ability to identify clearly the issues or problems it aims to tackle, establish goals for addressing them, decide on priorities among these goals, and develop strategies for addressing them.
An organization should consider ethics training and familiarity with the BACB Guidelines as a standard form of professional development and personnel management because ethical behavior is .
This article throws light on the five major organizational behavior issues faced by today’s manager, i.e, (1) Managerial Challenges, (2) Work Place Issues and Challenges, (3) Organisational Challenges, (4) Global Challenges, and (5) Environmental Challenges.