English law[ edit ] "Prisoner" is a legal term for a person who is imprisoned.
History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society.
The best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabiwritten in Babylon around BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were almost exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis "the law of retaliation"whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance, often by the victims themselves.
This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manama Dharma Astrathe Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, and the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Platobegan to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of simply using it as retribution.
Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.
A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, and quarries.
One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prisonestablished around B. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions,  contaminated with human waste.
Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment. In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slaveryoften in ergastula a primitive form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor. The possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, however, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils ; and the ability to have someone imprisoned or killed served as a signifier of who in society possessed power or authority over others.
Castellania Valletta From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Particularly under the Bloody Codewith few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving increasingly unpopular with the public; many jurors were refusing to convict defendants of petty crimes when they knew the defendants would be sentenced to death.
Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence. They developed systems of mass incarcerationoften with hard labor, as a solution.
The first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalismand suggested that prisons should simply be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, hanging, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrenceclaims that the primary purpose of prisons is to be so harsh and terrifying that they deter people from committing crimes out of fear of going to prison.
The second theory, which saw prisons as a form of rehabilitation or moral reform, was based on religious ideas that equated crime with sin, and saw prisons as a place to instruct prisoners in Christian morality, obedience and proper behavior.
These later reformers believed that prisons could be constructed as humane institutions of moral instruction, and that prisoners' behavior could be "corrected" so that when they were released, they would be model members of society.
Punishment usually consisted of physical forms of punishment, including capital punishment, mutilationflagellation whippingbrandingand non-physical punishments, such as public shaming rituals like the stocks.This paper will look at the classicist and biological positivist approaches to crime comparing each approach and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.
In the late eighteenth century a large body of theory known as the enlightenment. 4The applicant was unable to identify all the people responsible for his treatment while incarcerated at the maximum security prison at Pollsmoor and thus refers to them as the responsible ashio-midori.com includes the Minister for Correctional Services and officers of the Department of Correctional Services responsible for the control and management of the prison during the period of his.
The Effects of the Conflict Theory on Imprisonment. Under certain conditions of prison crowding, officials may accord highest priority to imprisoning offenders whose behavior conflicts most with the norms enforced by the agencies and to the prisoners who fit traditional stereotypes of serious criminals, that is, violent black offenders.
The theory derives from Seligman's () theory of learned helplessness, which postulates that people can learn that outcomes are not contingent on their responses, which results in a degree of apathy even when control is restored.
Rodin and Baum () argue that con- . Prison Crowding Research Reexamined Gerald G. Gaes Federal Bureau of Prisons Revised, January context of prison overcrowding itself.
8 Recent Prison Population Growth The Legal Context of Prison Crowding Another approach to describing the status of crowding and. SOC Selected Topics in Criminology DIFFERENT THEORIES Overcrowding in prisions results in powder keg theory.
The demands usually are agreements between prison agreements; lack of .