Physics p2 question paper higher essay

Return to Scriptural Physics Home Page Purpose And Scope Of This Article The purpose of this article is to foster the development of intuitive concepts in atomic physics so that knowledge in this field will become more accessible and understandable to a larger group of people than is currently the case.

Physics p2 question paper higher essay

References and Further Reading 1. He received his A.

Engineering Science N2 Question Papers And Memos - PDF

Fodor died on November 29, Physicalism, Functionalism, and the Special Sciences Throughout his career Fodor endorsed physicalism, the claim that all the genuine particulars and properties in the world are either identical to or in some sense determined by and dependent upon physical particulars and properties.

Although there are contested questions about how physicalism should be formulated and understood MelnykStoljarthere is nevertheless widespread acceptance of some or other version of physicalism among philosophers of mind. Accepting physicalism thus goes hand in hand with rejecting mind-body dualism.

Fodor helped to change that, in part by drawing a clear distinction between mere mentalism, which posits the existence of internal, causally efficacious mental states, and dualism, which is mentalism plus the view that mental states are states of a non-physical substance.

In so doing, they have rather strongly suggested that the exorcism can be carried through only if such a logical connection can be made out. Attributing mental states to organisms in explaining how they get around in and manipulate their environments need not involve the postulation of a mental substance different in kind from physical bodies and brains.

In addition to clearly distinguishing mentalism from dualism, Fodor put forward a number of trenchant objections to behaviorism and the various arguments for it. He argued that neither knowing about the mental states of others nor learning a language with mental terms requires that there be a logical connection between mental and behavioral terms, thus undermining a number of epistemological and linguistic arguments for behaviorism Fodor and ChiharaFodor Perhaps more importantly, Fodor argued that empirical theories in cognitive psychology and linguistics provide a powerful argument against behaviorism, since they posit the existence of various mental states that are not definable in terms of overt behavior Fodor Unlike behaviorism, which attempts to explain behavior in terms of law-like relationships between stimulus inputs and behavioral outputs, functionalism explains behavior in terms of internal properties that mediate between inputs and outputs.

Indeed, the main claim of functionalism is that mental properties are individuated in terms of the various causal relations they enter into, where such relations are not restricted to mere input-output relations, but also include their relations to a host of other properties that figure in the relevant empirical theories.

On this view, the causal roles that define mental properties are provided by empirical psychology, and not, say, the platitudes of commonsense psychology, or the analyticities expressive of the meanings of mental terms; see Reych. By defining mental properties in terms of their causal roles, functionalists allow that the same mental property can be instantiated by different kinds of physical systems.

Physics p2 question paper higher essay

Functionalism thus goes hand in hand with the multiple realizability of mental properties. Functionalism thereby characterizes mental properties at a level of abstraction that ignores differences in the physical structure of the systems that have these properties.

Early functionalists, like Fodor and Putnam, thus took themselves to be articulating a position that was distinct not only from behaviorism, but also from type-identity theorywhich identifies mental properties with neurophysiological properties of the brain. If functionalism implies that mental properties can be realized by different physical properties in different kinds of systems or the same system over timethen functionalism apparently precludes identifying mental properties with physical properties.

Fodor, in particular, articulated his functionalism so that it was seen to have sweeping consequences for debates concerning reductionism and the unity of science. Traditionally, reductionists sought to articulate bridge laws that link special science predicates with physical predicates, either in the form of bi-conditionals or identity statements.

Multiple realizability thus guarantees that special science predicates will cross-classify phenomena picked out by physical predicates. This, in turn, undermines the reductionist hope of a unified science whereby the higher-level theories of the special sciences reduce to lower-level theories and ultimately to fundamental physics.

Functionalism and non-reductive physicalism are now commonplace in philosophy of mind, and provide the backdrop for many contemporary debates about psychological explanation, laws, multiple realizability, mental causationand more.

At a minimum, folk psychology is committed to two kinds of states: Fodor is impressed by the remarkable predictive power of such belief-desire explanations. The following passage is typical: Common sense psychology works so well it disappears.

And the theory works so well that several days later or weeks later, or months later, or years later; you can vary the example to taste and several thousand miles away, there I am at the airport and there he is to meet me.

What Fodor is committed to is the claim that a mature psychology will be intentional through and through, and that the intentional states it posits will be causally implicated in law-like explanations of human behavior.

Exactly which intentional states will figure in a mature psychology is a matter to be decided by empirical inquiry, not by a priori reflection on our common sense understanding.

Our minds are apparently sensitive not only to abstract properties such as being a democracy and being virtuous, but also to abstract grammatical properties such as being a noun phrase and being a verb phrase, as well as to such arbitrary properties as being a tiny folded piece of paper, being an oddly-shaped canteen, being a crumpled shirt, and being to the left of my favorite mug.

Although laws of nature govern crumpled shirts, no object is subsumed under a law in virtue of being a crumpled shirt. Nevertheless, the property of being a crumpled shirt is one that we can represent an object as having, and such representations do enter into laws.

Although positing mental representations that have semantic and causal properties—states that satisfy 1 and 2 above—may not seem particularly controversial, the existence of causally efficacious intentional states has been denied by all manner of behaviorists, epiphenomenalists, Wittgensteinians, interpretationists, instrumentalists, and at least some connectionists.Civil Service Exam Complete Reviewer Philippines - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

Physics p2 question paper higher essay

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