Lewis was a prolific letter writer, and his personal correspondence reveals much of his private life, reflections, friendships, and the progress of his thought. This second of a three—volume collection contains the letters Lewis wrote after his conversion to Christianity, as he began a lifetime of serious writing. Tolkien and Dorothy Sayers.
Medieval epic[ edit ] The medieval romance developed out of the medieval epic, in particular the Matter of France developing out of such tales as the Chanson de Gestewith intermediate forms where the feudal bonds of loyalty had giants, or a magical horn, added to the plot. The entire Matter of France derived from known figures, and suffered somewhat because their descendants had an interest in the tales that were told of their ancestors, unlike the Matter of Britain.
Richard Coeur de Lion reappeared in romance, endowed with a fairy mother who arrived in a ship with silk sails and departed when forced to behold the sacrament, bare-handed combat with a lion, magical rings, and prophetic dreams.
Many early tales had the knight, such as Sir Launfalmeet with fairy ladies, and Huon of Bordeaux is aided by King Oberon but these fairy characters were transformed, more and more often, into wizards and enchantresses.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late tale, but the Green Knight himself is an otherworldly being. As time progressed, a new persecutor appeared: It is the most ancient prototype of an Italian singing fairy tale by an anonymous Tuscan author. It tells the story of a young Italian knight, depleted for its "magnanimitas", who gets the love of a fairy.
When he loses this love because he does not comply with his conditions, Gherardino reconquers his lady after a series of labours, including the prison where he is rescued by another woman and a tournament where he wins.
Other examples of Italian Tuscan poetry tales are Antonio Pucci's literature: Another work of a second anonymous Italian author that is worth mentioning is Istoria di Tre Giovani Disperati e di Tre Fate "Story of three desperate boys and three fairies".
Classical origins[ edit ] Some romances, such as Apollonius of Tyreshow classical pagan origins. Ovid was used as a source for tales of Jason and Medea, which were cast in romance in a more fairy-tale like form, probably closer to the older forms than Ovid's rhetoric.
It was introduced to the romance by Chretien de Troyescombining it with the Matter of Britain, new to French poets. Many medieval romances recount the marvellous adventures of a chivalrous, heroic knightoften of super-human ability, who, abiding chivalry's strict codes of honor and demeanor, goes on a questand fights and defeats monsters and giants, thereby winning favor with a lady.
Forms of the High Middle Ages[ edit ] During the early 13th century, romances were increasingly written as prose, and extensively amplified through cycles of continuation. These were collated in the vast, polymorphous manuscript witnesses comprising what is now known as the Vulgate Cyclewith the romance of La Mort le Roi Artu c.
These texts, together with a wide range of further Arthurian material, such as that found in the anonymous cycle of English Brut Chroniclescomprised the bases of Malory 's Morte d'Arthur. Prose literature thus increasingly dominated the expression of romance narrative in the later Middle Ages, at least until the resurgence of verse during the high Renaissance in the oeuvres of Ludovico AriostoTorquato Tassoand Edmund Spenser.
The genre began in thirteenth-century Norway with translations of French chansons de geste; it soon expanded to similar indigenous creations. Late Medieval and Renaissance forms[ edit ] In late medieval and Renaissance high culture, the important European literary trend was to fantastic fictions in the mode of Romance.
The romances were freely drawn upon for royal pageantry. Hudibras also lampoons the faded conventions of chivalrous romance, from an ironic, consciously realistic viewpoint.
Some of the magical and exotic atmosphere of Romance informed tragedies for the stage, such as John Dryden 's collaborative The Indian Queen as well as Restoration spectaculars and opera seriasuch as Handel 's Rinaldobased on a magical interlude in Tasso 's Gerusalemme liberata.
In the Renaissancealso, the romance genre was bitterly attacked as barbarous and silly by the humanistswho exalted Greek and Latin classics and classical forms, an attack that was not in that century very effective among the common readers. Related forms[ edit ] The Acritic songs dealing with Digenis Acritas and his fellow frontiersmen resemble much the chanson de geste, though they developed simultaneously but separately.
These songs dealt with the hardships and adventures of the border guards of the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantium - including their love affairs - and where a predominantly oral tradition which survived in the Balkans and Anatolia until modern times.
This genre may have intermingled with its Western counterparts during the long occupation of Byzantine territories by French and Italian knights after the 4th crusade. This is suggested by later works in the Greek language which show influences from both traditions.
Relationship to modern "romantic fiction"[ edit ] In later Romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a marked tendency to emphasize themes of courtly lovesuch as faithfulness in adversity. With a female protagonist, during the rise of Romanticism the depiction of the course of such a courtship within contemporary conventions of realismthe female equivalent of the " novel of education ", informs much Romantic fiction.
In gothic novels such as Bram Stoker 's Draculathe elements of romantic seduction and desire were mingled with fear and dread. Nathaniel Hawthorne used the term to distinguish his works as romances rather than novels,  and literary criticism of the 19th century often accepted the contrast between the romance and the novel, in such works as H.
Wells 's "scientific romances" in the beginning of science fiction. It was translated twenty-two times into English, 20 times into German, and into many other European languages, including modern Icelandic in Their influence on authors such as J. TolkienWilliam Morris and Poul Anderson and on the subsequent modern fantasy genre is considerable.
Modern usage of term "romance" usually refer to the romance novelwhich is a subgenre that focuses on the relationship and romantic love between two people; these novels must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending.
Shakespeare's later comedies, such as The Tempest or The Winter's Tale are sometimes called his romances.
Modern works may differentiate from love-story as romance into different genres, such as planetary romance or Ruritanian romance. Science fiction was, for a time, termed scientific romanceand gaslamp fantasy is sometimes termed gaslight romance.
Flannery O'Connerwriting of the use of grotesque in fiction, talked of its use in "the modern romance tradition.Learn the works that shaped the minds of great individuals and offer an extraordinary gift of wisdom.
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