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Equipment Grounding Conductor Equipment Grounding Most metallic raceways, cable sheaths, and cable armor which are continuous and utilize proper fittings may serve as the equipment grounding conductor.
A separate grounding conductor is needed when plastic conduit, non-metallic sheathed cable, or other wiring methods are used which are not approved as grounding methods. This requirement was extracted from NECEffective Grounding Path, which is more complete and fundamental to the understanding of electrical safety.
It states that the path to ground: These high temperatures may be a hazard in themselves, and they may destroy the continuity of the ground-fault path. Also, if the impedance is high, the fault current will be limited to some value so low that the fuse or circuit breaker will not operate promptly, if at all.
It is important to remember the following regarding safe grounding paths: The fault current in A-C circuits will be limited by the sum of resistance and reactance, and the only low-reactance path is that which closely follows the circuit conductors.
If a metallic raceway system is used, make sure that the metallic system is continuous and permanent. In cases where a metallic raceway system is not used, provide a green or bare equipment-grounding conductor close to the supply conductors to assure that all enclosures are bonded together and to the source.
If in a hazardous classified location. If operated at over volts to ground, except for guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground.
If the equipment is of the following types: Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners; Clothes-washing, clothes-drying and dishwashing machines, sump pumps, and electrical aquarium equipment; Hand-held motor-operated tools; Motor-operated appliances of the following types: Under the conditions described above, exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of cord- and plug-connected equipment must be grounded.
Grounding metal parts is not required where the equipment is supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts or if portable tools are protected by an approved system of double insulation.
To ground cord- and plug-connected equipment, a third wire is commonly provided in the cord set and a third prong in the plug. The third wire serves as an equipment grounding conductor which is connected to the metal housing of a portable tool and a metal grounding bus inside the service entrance equipment.
The service entrance equipment is located at the entrance point of the electric supply for a building or plant and contains, or serves other panelboards which contain, branch circuit protective devices such as fuses and circuit breakers.
The third wire provides a path for fault current should an insulation failure occur. In this manner, dangerous fault current will be directed back to the source, the service entrance, and will enable circuit breakers or fuses to operate, thus opening the circuit and stopping the current flow.
The figure below illustrates the potential shock hazard that exists when no third wire, grounding conductor, is used. If a fault occurs, most of the current will follow the path of least resistance. If the worker provides a path to ground as shown, some portion of the current will flow away from the grounded white conductor neutral and return to ground through the worker.
The severity of the shock received will depend on the amount of current that flows through the worker. Cord- and Plug-Connected Equipment Without a Grounding Conductor The figure below illustrates the advantage of a properly connected grounded conductor.Collection of Latest Seminar Topics, best seminar topics, seminar, Seminars, Best Seminar Reports and PPT for nearly engineering branches including Electronics, Electrical, IT,Computer Science, Mechanical,Automobile Engineering, Biomedical,Civil across the world for B.E/ashio-midori.com, M.E/ashio-midori.com students.
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Here is an updated list of mechanical seminar topics. Latest seminar topics for mechanical engineering along with downloadable Pdf ppt. Here is an updated list of mechanical seminar topics.
Latest seminar topics for mechanical engineering along with downloadable Pdf ppt.