Woodruff Professor of Law; Alonzo L.
On 21—22 April in Haifaafter the Haganah waged a day-and-a-half battle including psychological warfare, the Jewish National Committee was unable to offer the Palestinian council assurance that an unconditional surrender would proceed without incident.
Finally, Irgun under Menachim Begin fired mortars on the infrastructure in Jaffa.
Combined with the fear inspired by Deir Yassin, each of these military actions resulted in panicked Palestinian evacuations. Meron Benvenisti regards Deir Yassin as "a turning point in the annals of the destruction of the Arab landscape.
Historian Efraim Karsh writes that not only had half of the Arab community in Haifa community fled the city before the final battle was joined in late Aprilbut another 5,—15, left apparently voluntarily during the fighting while the rest, some 15,—25, were ordered to leave, as was initially claimed by an Israeli source, on the instructions of the Arab Higher Committee.
The three-inch mortars "opened up on the market square [where there was] a great crowd [ The multitude burst into the port, pushed aside the policemen, charged the boats and began to flee the town", as the official Haganah history later put it.
The Haganah broadcast a warning to Arabs in Haifa on 21 April: Throughout the Haganah made effective use of Arabic language broadcasts and loudspeaker vans. Haganah Radio announced that "the day of judgement had arrived" and called on inhabitants to "kick out the foreign criminals" and to "move away from every house and street, from every neighbourhood occupied by foreign criminals.
It was deemed just as important to the outcome as the physical destruction of the Arab units. The mortar barrages and the psychological warfare broadcasts and announcements, and the tactics employed by the infantry companies, advancing from house to house, were all geared to this goal. The orders of Carmeli's 22nd Battalion were "to kill every [adult male] Arab encountered" and to set alight with fire-bombs "all objectives that can be set alight.
I am sending you posters in Arabic; disperse on route. These were concentrated in Wadi Nisnas in accordance with Plan D whilst the systematic destruction of Arab housing in certain areas, which had been planned before the War, was implemented by Haifa's Technical and Urban Development departments in cooperation with the IDF's city commander Ya'akov Lublini.
Avneryexplaining the Zionist rationale, says, I believe that during this phase, the eviction of Arab civilians had become an aim of David Ben-Gurion and his government UN opinion could very well be disregarded.
Peace with the Arabs seemed out of the question, considering the extreme nature of the Arab propaganda. In this situation, it was easy for people like Ben-Gurion to believe the capture of uninhabited territory was both necessary for security reasons and desirable for the homogeneity of the new Hebrew state.
Undoubtedly, as was understood by IDF intelligence, the most important single factor in the exodus of April—June was Jewish attack.
This is demonstrated clearly by the fact that each exodus occurred during or in the immediate wake of military assault. The closer drew the 15 May British withdrawal deadline and the prospect of invasion by Arab states, the readier became commanders to resort to "cleansing" operations and expulsions to rid their rear areas.
Townspeople and villagers usually fled their homes before or during battle From the surrounding villages and hamlets, during the next two or three days, all the inhabitants were uprooted and set off on the road to Ramallah No longer was there any "reasonable persuasion.
Wherever the Israeli troops advanced into Arab country the Arab population was bulldozed out in front of them. Tanturabeing on the coast, gave the Carmel villages access to the outside world and so was chosen as the point to surround the Carmel villages as a part of the Coastal Clearing offensive operation in the beginning of the Arab—Israeli War.
On the night of 22—23 Mayone week and one day after the declaration of Independence of the State of Israelthe coastal village of Tantura was attacked and occupied by the 33rd Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade of the Haganah.
The village of Tantura was not given the option of surrender and the initial report spoke of dozens of villagers killed, with adult male prisoners and women and children.
The captured women of Tantura were moved to Fureidis, and on 31 May Brechor Shitrit, Minister of Minority Affairs of the provisional Government of Israel, sought permission to expel the refugee women of Tantura from Fureidis as the number of refugees in Fureidis was causing problems of overcrowding and sanitation.The causes and effects of immigration are many and vary tremendously.
Immigration can be voluntary, in which an immigrant seeks better opportunities or simply chooses to live in another country, or involuntary, either because of a crisis or forced removal by an outside force. Causes and Effects of Immigration. Causes. Immigration caused the Immigration and Naturalization Act of – which helped bring immigrant families together and attracted skilled labors in the U.S.
When immigrants came through Ellis Island – which is an immigration station where immigrants were to pass an inspection before being let into. Why Two in One Flesh? The Western Case for Monogamy Over Polygamy, John Witte, Jr.
Western nations can responsibly hold the line against polygamy. Free trinidad papers, essays, and research papers.
Spanish Colonization and Trinidad and Caribbean - IMPACT OF SPANISH COLONIZATION ON THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF TRINIDAD AND WIDER CARIBBEAN Pre- History before the European’s Three (3) major Amerindian indigenous people lived in the Caribbean before the European discovered many of the Caribbean islands.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Identify the negative effects of illegal immigration. Offer a solution of how illegal immigration could be reduced. Illegal immigration is the movement of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from ashio-midori.com